GETTING TO KNOW DONOSTI – SAN SEBASTIAN FOR FUTURE PROPERTY BUYERS AND REAL ESTATE INVESTORS
THE CITY OF SAN SEBASTIAN – DONOSTI
I.- INTRODUCTION – THE ORIGINS
Historically it is said that the settlement that gave rise to San Sebastián was the monastery of San Sebastián el Antiguo, as well as the castle of Monte Urgull , and the town located in the burial mound that linked it to the land whose inhabitants say that historically they were dedicated to fishing and commercial activity.
The surrounding territory was dotted with farmhouses that were also engaged in agricultural work.
It must be said that San Sebastián is located as a point of contact between two different regions: the sea and the interior lands. To access the interior lands, the land routes had the Urumea River to access the coast and thus develop a mercantile and trade activity with the interior.
In fact, the city had a maritime port, and another river port (or Santa Catalina), in addition to the port of Pasajes, which for many years was under San Sebastian jurisdiction.
It was Sancho El Sabio who granted this modest population center the charter, since it was already beginning to have an incipient commercial activity.
Over the years, and given its proximity to the border, it also had a certain military importance, which led to the construction of different fortifications that were developed over time until the mid-19th century.
The urban development of San Sebastián- Donosti has several phases :
The first until the destruction by the siege of 1813 (War of Spanish Independence) .
From the Middle Ages to the 16th century, no major structural changes were experienced in the town. It is a walled urban nucleus endowed with a regular geometric type plan, with an important jurisdiction over the adjacent agricultural territory, and some smaller nuclei that surrounded it.
From the surroundings of the primitive medieval castle of Urgull , various belts of walls were built that will limit urban development until the 19th century.
In the 16th century, construction works and expansion of the new walls were undertaken.
These works continue to be carried out during the 17th century, and to a lesser extent in the 18th.
This stage ends with the almost total destruction of the city in 1813. On this date the city is destroyed by the Duke of Wellington’s siege of the city (War of Independence), and it is rebuilt, thus emerging the current part old.
In 1854 San Sebastián was designated as the capital of Gipuzkoa.
During those dates, an important tourist activity joins the commercial and administrative activities of the city , since since the mid-19th century it has been chosen as the summer residence of the Royal family.
In those years the demolition of the walls was authorized, so the city ceased to be a war place.
Starting in those years, the development of the Ensanche area began, with the construction of the southern San Sebastián Ensanche, which also occupied the marshes and Arenales de Urumea.
The Ensanche has a regular pattern, with straight streets, which form a square grid, highlighting the so-called Avenida de la Libertad.
This area has an important tourist and recreational use with the Paseo de la Concha. It also has an important residential, administrative and commercial use.
Industrial activities are moving towards Ibaeta, Antiguo, and what will later be the Barrio de Gros.
The humblest classes are concentrating in the Old part or moving towards the Old.
Later the works of the Ensanche de Gros or Zurriola began , in the Arenales that stretched between the Urumea river and the slope of Mount Ulía .
The area that today is considered the Center was built between 1867 and 1910. The center of gravity of the city shifted from Gipuzkoa square to Avenida de la Libertad, which today constitutes the axis of Donosti . The Old Town, due to its difficult framework, is displaced to an area of recreation and small shops, as it is not prepared to develop a modern commercial, traffic and transport activity.
Later, urban development polarized towards San Martín streets, the network of streets around Buen Pastor square, and Prim street, while constructions on Gross, Antiguo and Amara Viejo streets stand out.
II.- THE SQUARES
Donosti has many and varied squares, such as the Plaza de la Constitución, which is a space for social relations and events of a popular, sporting and cultural nature, leaving under its arcades the commercial floors, on top of which are the houses.
In addition to the Plaza de la Constitución, Donosti has the following squares:
- The Plaza de la Trinidad, which has the purpose of cultural and sports activities.
- The Plaza de Zuloaga where there is a garden area, and the San Telmo museum.
- In addition, we find the small Plaza Lasala.
- We also find the Alameda del Boulevard, whose central space is occupied by gardens and public services, being one of the fundamental axes of the road network and the union between the old part and the expansion.
- The Plaza de Gipuzkoa, with its garden in its central part, is a place for recreation and recreation with a small pond. Around which there are commercial premises, on top of which are houses, offices, as well as the Gipuzkoa Provincial Council Palace. It represents a place of attraction and centrality for the city, also occupying a central position in the expansion.
- The Plaza del Buen Pastor is a leisure area. In this square is the cathedral, being surrounded by houses with commercial floors. Around this square are the unique Correos buildings, and the Koldo Mitxelena Cultural Center.
- The Plaza de Bilbao is also located on one of the sides of the circulation area of Calle Prim.
- The Plaza del Centenario is the connection point between the neighborhoods of Amara Nuevo and Amara Viejo.
- The Plaza de Pío XII is located between one of the most important internal and external connection areas of the city. Through it, it connects with the Bilbao- Behobia motorway. In it is the Government Sub-delegation, the bus terminal, and the Hotel Amara Plaza.
- The Plaza de Irún, in the Amara Nuevo neighborhood. The network of connections that connects Madrid avenue, the Urumea river, and the connections with Loiola is located in this square . The ARCCO shopping center stands out in it.
- The rest of the squares in the Amara Nuevo neighborhood are located inside the blocks, presenting some of them in their low commercial establishments, garages, and workshops, while others are occupied by small gardens and recreational areas.
These are the squares of Armerías, Ferrerías, Etxeberri , Cofradías, Mercanderes, Soldados, Marinos, Preboste , and Estudios.
- The Plaza de Zaragoza is its place of transition and recreation in the center and Miraconcha .
- The Plaza de Euskadi and Plaza de España are places of passage between the streets that, through these plazas and the Santa Catalina bridge, link the neighborhoods of Gros, Amara, Egia -Atocha and Centro.
III.- THE NEIGHBORHOODS
The Altza neighborhood is located on one of the hills that dominate the bay of Pasaia, occupying its slopes. It is the easternmost neighborhood of the city, located on the border with the terms of Pasaia and Rentería. It extends over a hill on whose summit a population center was located, which gave way to a progressive occupation, in the last forty years, of the North, East and West slopes, as well as the construction in front of the national highway, and in the Txingurri and Molinao valleys , constituting a clearly identifiable piece in the city.
The very characteristics of the physical environment, and in particular its topography, highlighted by the layout of the large infrastructures executed in its surroundings (Pasaia port, Bilbao – Behobia motorway and its links with La Herrera and the port) make up, today Today, the limits of the Neighborhood are completely defined, except for its continuity solution to the East in the Antxo district in Pasaia and the Garbera Area, located to the Southwest.
It has an extension of almost 230 Ha. that the PGOU subdivides into twenty-five designated Urban Intervention Areas (AIU) : La Herrera, Tsingurri , Larratxo , Altza Over , Lardi Alde , Jolastokieta , Pikabea , Oleta , Arria, Carretera NI (section La Herrera-Buenavista), Larres , Buenavista, Alto de Buenavista, Escalantegi , Mendibil, Putxuzulo , Molinao , Papin, Landarro , Garbera, Esnabide , Don Bosco, Las Mercedes, Auditz-Akular , and Luzuriaga.
The coexistence of incompatible uses and the need to redevelop unfinished spaces constitute two more characteristics of a Neighborhood in which a total of 7,501 homes are located, 139,716 m2 for industrial uses and 55,207 m2 for tertiary uses.
At the level of the provision of community equipment, Altza has a standard above the municipal average derived from the actions carried out in recent years: Larres sports center, Casares House of Culture, health center, educational centers, etc., which They have started an important restructuring process.
Given the problem, the PGOU opts for the rehabilitation of the urban fabric, the transfer of industries, the preparation of alternative industrial land, the offer of tertiary land, etc. As regards specific actions, we must highlight these: the remodeling of the Herrera and Buenavista accesses; execution of new accesses from Intxaurrondo and Molinao ; interior reform of Herrera, Larratxo and Buenavista; integrated rehabilitation in Altza , Arria and Molinao ; completion of the Oleta and Darieta areas ; creation of industrial land in Landarro and Miamarka ; forecast of a shopping and office center in Lardi-Alde ; execution of the parks of Arria, Garberako Gaina and Larres ; and expansion of the Larres sports complex .
Amara Berri (Amara Nuevo).
With a total area of 132 hectares, it is limited to the north by the Urumea River in the meander that borders the Mundaiz Peninsula . To the East and South by the “bypass” road and to the West by the Eusko railway lines Trenbideak and the new Amara- Ayete road . It includes the flat lands of the Urumea plain and the Anoeta and Morlans troughs (in its lower part) which constitute natural extensions of the plain soils. Part of the slope of the Alkolea Park ( Ibaialde Area ) is also incorporated, although it is located on the right bank of the river. Most of the neighborhood is considered by the PGOU as urban land, except for the Ensanche de Amara IV and Riberas de Loyola Areas, which are classified as Developable Land in Progress.
Amara-Berri is one of the most important neighborhoods in the residential development of the city, with a planned total of 13,199 homes in the development horizon of the General Plan.
The Añorga neighborhood is made up of two large pockets of soil located on both sides of the NI Highway, in the section between the link with the variant road to the South of Ibaeta and the municipality of Lasarte.
It occupies an approximate area of 123 Ha. The inadequate accesses from the NI to the existing residential areas with the consequent isolation that this causes and the low level of equipment are the two issues that stand out negatively.
The neighborhood of El Antiguo-Ondarreta occupies the northern part of the flat areas of the Vega de Ibaeta up to the coast and the hill of Lugaritz (Seminario), it has an area of 116 hectares and is limited to the north by access roads to Igeldo and the Ondarreta beach ; to the South by the Camino de los Pinos and the pedestrian access to the Fundación Matía ; to the East by Palacio and Dr. Marañón streets and to the West by Avda. de Tolosa and the slope of Monte Igueldo.
In the 1990s there was an important boost in both the construction of homes and equipment (sports center, outpatient clinic, etc.).
It is divided into the following Urban Action Areas: Miramar-Ondarreta, El Antiguo, Seminario, Lugaritz , Lizarriturri, Benta Berri, North University Campus, Ensanche de Ondarreta, Ciudad Jardín de Ondarreta I and II.
The Ategorrieta-Ulia neighborhood develops at the foot of the southern slope of Mount Ulia . It has an area of 67.53 hectares and is bordered to the west by Sagüés , to the south by Avda. de Navarra and the RENFE railway, and to the east by Alto de Miracruz .
Its development is basically linear, supported in the first instance by the old Ategorrieta road and later on the Navarra and Ategorrieta avenues , ascending the Ulía hillside maintaining a relatively homogeneous maximum cornice reference. The typology of the settlements, although not contemporary, responds in its generality to low-development residential establishments and isolated housing among which conventual plots proliferate occupied by large buildings that contrast in the residential environment.
Five Areas are distinguished in the Neighborhood: Manteo, Ulía -Barren, Mitxelene , Toki-Eder, and Ategorrieta , which for the purposes of planning execution, are classified as urban land.
Despite the apparent homogeneity, the Barrio’s problems are diverse. There is a need for redevelopment due to problems such as the insufficient road network, the high density in certain areas, the mix of uses, and the lack of parking and free spaces.
In the Manteo Area there is a higher density of occupation with accessibility conflicts, while other Areas have a higher environmental quality, which, however, is also accompanied by deficiencies in this same field. The low-density typology of the Neighborhood gives rise to a dispersion of public spaces that reach high standards in Manteo, after the interventions that have taken place in recent years, and reduced in garden city areas as is usual in these typologies.
The obligation to redevelop the area is observed, which takes the form of a series of urban actions: transformation of industrial uses into tertiary ones, creation of new squares and free spaces in Santa Teresa, Manteo, etc., urbanization of the Ulía park in the areas adjacent to the neighborhood, construction of the sports center and provision of underground car parks in Manteo. On the other hand, it is also necessary to consolidate the low-density residential typology as a characteristic use, the adaptation and prioritization of the road network, the development of vacant interstitial areas, solving the deficient connections and the majority consolidation of the uses of equipment.
The Ayete neighborhood sits in the central area of the city and occupies the summit and slopes of Alto de Ayete , located between the Ibaeta and Urumea plains.
It has an approximate area of 233 hectares and is bordered to the south by the San Sebastián variant, to the north by Paseo de Miraconcha and the Camino de San Roque, to the east by the Eusko railway lines. Trenbideak , the new Amara – Ayete road and the Errondo road , and to the west with the edges of the Lugaritz pass, the Ibaeta- Ayete road and Avenida de Tolosa.
Ayete responds, in general, to the characteristics of a garden city of medium density in the built-up areas and that there is a shortage of community equipment, a deficient road connection between the various developed areas and little support for commercial activity. For all these reasons, it is planned to carry out some urban actions: the Txantxa -Erreka sports center and the Lanberri , Puyo and Pagola sports areas ; Txantxa -Erreka shopping center ; construction of the Amara- Aiete -Ibaeta/El Antiguo road (1999); and the creation of the parks of Puyo and Arbaizenea .
Bounded to the North by the open sea, to the East by the Urumea River, to the West by the Bahía de la Concha and the Ayete hills , and by the new Ensanche de Amara to the South, the Center, for the purposes of the General Plan, is constituted through the Historic Quarter, the 19th century Ensanches, the Paseo de Miraconcha and the San Bartolomé hill, all of them built-up areas, to which are added Mount Urgull and the Island of Santa Clara.
It occupies an area of 116 hectares and is delimited as follows: Urgull -Santa Clara, Port, Parte Vieja, Ensanche, San Bartolomé, Amara Zaharra (Old Amara), and Paseo de Miraconcha . All of them are classified as Urban Land.
As an area of great environmental, architectural and urban quality, the actions planned by the PGOU for the Center are fundamentally aimed at preserving its characteristics.
Thus, in the last decade of the 20th century, a Rehabilitation Plan for the Historic Quarter, protection of the built heritage, another Traffic Restructuring Plan, considering the possibility of burying the Eusko roads. Trenbideak , and the implementation of the Ensanche in the San Bartolomé Area3, Cultural Center in the old Pescadería (1999), and the possible location of the bus station. Of notable importance is the plan for the rearrangement and renovation of the Boulevard (1999) and Alderdi Eder (1998), actions that, together with the pedestrianization resulting from the new arrangement of the road system, should constitute a fundamental factor for the improvement of environmental quality. of the Ensanche and its commercial appeal. To finish with this area, indicate that the Koldo Mitxelena Cultural Center (1993) is one of the works that have been carried out and with great success in all aspects.
Egia constitutes a clearly identifiable neighborhood in the urban fabric with conditions of centrality that are depreciated in part due to its location to the east of the railway and its topography.
The neighborhood has perfectly recognizable physical limits , which in part represent barriers in its relationship with the rest of the city. Thus, it borders to the North with the RENFE railway layout, to the West and South with the course of the Urumea River and to the East with the Marrutxipi valley and the Baratzategi Area , where, however, a continuity of the plot occurs. more evident.
In order to integrate the urban piece in the city, the space occupied by the old Atocha stadium and Mercado de Frutas is destined for the construction of houses, open spaces and tertiary uses (Palace of Justice), advocating the General Plan for the solution of communications around the Iztueta viaduct, complemented by pedestrian connections over it at the height of the Santa Catalina bridge and the new bridge planned in front of the Araba park, remodeling the existing overpass at the station (1999). In addition, the PGOU proposes new road access from Amara Osinaga and Intxaurrondo , etc. Egia ‘s non-existent sports facilities led to the construction of the sports center, fronton court and complementary tracks on the Mármoles Cantabria site, thus solving the problem. On the other hand, the connection of this neighborhood with Intxaurrondo was improved with the extension of Avda. de Ametzagaina . Also noteworthy is the construction of homes on Paseo del Urumea and in Bateilla (1999-2000).
It has an approximate surface of 44 Ha., constituting the Neighborhood delimited by the PGOU of smaller extension. It represents the eastern expansion of the city, projected in successive phases, which have involved a progressive physical occupation of land reclaimed from the river and the sea. At present, unfinished, it is projected to define its final configuration.
The territory is noticeably horizontal and constitutes, despite its centrality in the city, a clearly identifiable piece due to its historical memory and the categoricalness of its limits: the Urumea River to the West, the RENFE railway line to the South, Avda. of Navarra and the foothills of Monte Ulía to the East and the sea to the North.
The entire neighborhood is classified as Urban Land. Of note are the interventions consisting of the remodeling of the Zurriola beach and promenade (1995), construction of the Kursaal Auditorium and Conference Center (1999), urbanization and rehabilitation plan for Sagüés , as well as the demolition of the Gros market and building of houses on its site (1997).
With an area of 192 hectares, it occupies the flat areas of the plain of the same name from the junction of the variant in Añorga to the Ensanche de Ondarreta, as well as part of the slopes of Lugaritz and Igueldo, which delimit it on the east and the West, respectively.
Excessive building developments can be seen on the hillside, unrelated to each other, partial uncoordinated planning for free zones, lack of adequate basic road form and local free spaces. The forecasts of interventions to alleviate these deficiencies are the execution of residential buildings (Ondarreta, Benta – Berri , Errotaburu , Berio , etc.), of the industrial areas of Igara, El Infierno and Zuatsu , of the Ibaeta- Aiete road … Also It is expected to improve Avda. de Tolosa as a fundamental configuring element of the urban development of the entire area, finish the University Campus, build the Benta – Berri (1999) and University sports centers, the Almorza and Lugaritz parks , and another series of parks and gardens.
Likewise , an integrated and complex program of uses is proposed that allows the neighborhood, together with the rest of the Vega belonging to the neighborhood of El Antiguo-Ondarreta, the conditions of centrality necessary to constitute an alternative pole to the urban center.
The actions in Muitegi (creation of a “sports park”), Beriyo (mixed residential development of “open construction” and “under development”), Igara (Maintenance of industrial use.), Errotaburu (construction of houses and two towers of tertiary uses, one of them headquarters of the Guipízcpa Provincial Treasury ) and Zuatsu (creation of a new zone of “industrial use” destined to the implantation of non-polluting modalities halfway between the industrialdea and the technological park.
This neighborhood is made up of three clearly differentiated urban enclaves inserted in the non-developable territory of Monte Igueldo, totaling an area of 25.8 hectares.
The enclaves to which we alluded are, in the first place, the area that includes the eastern slope of the Monte, limited by the access roads to Igueldo (“Faro” and “Pueblo”) and the summit. The second is made up of the “Amezti” residential area, made up of a narrow strip of land located on the northern slope of the Monte and limited to the south by the access road to the urban area of Igeldo . The latter, together with the newly developed territory that is delimited in its surroundings, constitutes the third of the aforementioned enclaves that make up Igueldo.
The urban problem that exists in Igueldo is the following: excessive densification of residential areas, passing traffic and the need for contained and gradual development in the Casco. To this must be added the scenic importance of the slopes of Igueldo.
In order to avoid densification, it is intended that the existing building be consolidated, not foreseeing more building developments of a certain relevance than the one corresponding to the Area of ” Igeldoko Zabalpena “. For the problems that the Casco has, the road traffic passing through it would be eliminated through the construction of the ring road of the “Pueblo de Igueldo”. Along with this, the PGOU provides for the expansion of the Amusement Park and the creation of open spaces on a general scale.
Intxaurrondo is located to the east of the city and rises on its slopes to approach the high areas of Ametzagaina after jumping over the artificial cut created in the 1970s by the construction of the Donostia-San Sebastián bypass.
It limits to the North with the layout of the RENFE railway, except for the original nucleus; to the West with the Neighborhood of Egia (Area of “Jai- Alai ” and Polloe Cemetery ); to the South with the accesses to the motorway and the Lau- Haizeta park, which includes the Ametzagaina hills , and to the East with the Herrera – Intxaurrondo link of the aforementioned variant.
Its extension reaches an area of 156 Ha., in which the typical problems of the outskirts of the city are observed: isolation, poor road accessibility, shortage of free spaces in certain sectors, parking and equipment. Still and all, a large part of these issues have improved substantially with the execution of the new accesses from Avda. de Ategorrieta and the variant.
For its solution, many urban actions have been proposed, some of which have already been carried out: burying the railway; creation of the Paseo de Zubiaurre; new road accesses through Marrutxipi , Altza and Amara Berri; forecast of new public initiative housing in Mons and Baratzategi ; provision of a shopping center in Marrutxipi ; creation of parks in Marrutxipi and Baratzategi , gardens and squares; construction of a sports center, doctor’s office, schools and residence for the elderly; provision of car parks.
With an approximate area of 114 Ha., the Loiola-Martutene neighborhood occupies the flat lands of the Urumea River plain as it passes through the South-East zone of the Municipality, including the La Salle hill, which separates the Areas of Loiola and Shores of Loiola .
It is limited to the North by the Urumea River and the variant road, to the East and West by the slopes of Intxaurrondo-Altza and Zorroaga respectively, reaching the South to the limit of the Municipality of San Sebastián with Astigarraga.
The requalification of the relatively disorderly and under- equipped urban structure of the existing residential and industrial centers is undoubtedly one of the fundamental objectives of intervention in this neighborhood, as well as its adequate connection at the urban level with the neighboring Amara-Berri neighborhood.
Loiola therefore suffers from problems of parking, traffic, lack of equipment and free spaces. In addition, it has a high density, there is a mix of incompatible uses and flooding problems tend to be too frequent.
For all these reasons, Special Rehabilitation Plans are proposed in Loiola , Txomin Enea and Martutene , Projects for the channeling of the river and layout of the highway, a walk along the river and the construction of a sports park in Martutene . Note that the La Salle Sports Center, which has garages and offices, was completed in 1997.
It sits on the southern slope of Mount Ulia , to the east of the city, bordering Pasaia and extending to the south as far as the RENFE railway line. It has an area of 57.10 hectares and its temporal and physical configuration responds to different moments and typologies. Thus, isolated single-family buildings, open-plan polygons featuring tall towers and constructions that emerged outside the planning lined up in front of the road make up the image of this neighborhood.
If we look at the urban planning of the area, we realize that there are two very different situations on both sides of Avenida Alcalde Elosegi . To the North, the developments of linear blocks and towers are located, where a problem is diagnosed in the specialization, hierarchy and management of free spaces, to which are added the existence of undeveloped voids, the precariousness of the accessibility conditions of certain buildings, the scarcity of parking and the mystification of uses, sometimes with obvious incompatibilities, as is the case of Gomistegi .
To the South, the settlements respond mainly to low-development typologies, meaning the road section and accessibility as specific problems.
Faced with this described situation, the PGOU proposes action on the road, projecting new connections in Gomistegi to improve the environment and accessibility conditions. The use of the road section is also modified, reducing the roadways in the North zone to benefit parking lots and sidewalks, and projecting roads of coexistence of section and reduced speed in the South zone.
In short, the development carried out promoting the interior reform of the Gomistegi Area and the rearrangement and redevelopment of public space is consolidated.
This 265- hectare space is located to the south of the Municipality, settling on the hills that dominate the Urumea valley and the Barkaiztegi and Añorga streams. It limits to the North with the motorway, to the West with Añorga-Txiki, to the South with Oriamendi and the Barkaiztegi valley , and to the East with the loiola quarries and the slopes that descend on Martutene .
At present it is a sparsely occupied area in which houses, predominantly of isolated typology, and large facilities are settled in a scattered way: Ciudad Sanitaria, Polyclinic of Guipúzcoa, Euskal Telebista, etc.
The negative issues to be resolved are accessibility and the inadequate road network. With the creation of a new access from the motorway, and the improvement of the Aldapeta and Anoeta roads, it is hoped that a solution will be provided.
The proposal also contemplates the specialization of the area in the settlement of uses and typologies similar to those currently existing, extended to activities typical of the Miramón technology park and the Illumbe recreational facilities, in which a leisure center has been built (1999) that includes a bullring ( 1998).
The area to which we refer in this paper refers to the Areas that are not classified as Undevelopable Land, that is, a little more than 46 Ha. of the 770 Ha. that approximately constitute the entirety of this western enclave, located in the aforementioned plain or immediately to it and, therefore, settled in a substantially flat territory, in front of which is also located the so-called Aizpurua house and the area occupied by the Donostia-San Sebastián Hippodrome and various facilities and equipment.
Both the enclave and the aforementioned settlements do not belong entirely to the municipality of Donostia, partially corresponding to the neighboring Municipality of Usúrbil according to the recently agreed demarcation.
The urban problems of the neighborhood are centered on the need to solve the passing traffic through the nucleus and the general accessibility. To this end, the PGOU plans to improve the roads and provide sidewalks to the access road from Lasarte-Oria and Txikierdi . Likewise , it is considered opportune to define the guidelines for the residential development of the nucleus, the object of constant initiatives that to date have not borne fruit, in order to generate a residential offer that avoids tensions of indiscriminate occupation in the plain.
On the other hand, there is the need to rearrange the facilities of the Hippodrome, its immediate surroundings and its eventual demands and possibilities for expansion, and the opportunity to have land for various uses with favorable topographical and accessibility conditions, safeguarding the plain in any case. North and considering in any case the special environmental conditions of the territory.
With regard to urban interventions on Undeveloped Land, the PGOU must highlight, in addition to Mendizorrotz , Ulia , Lau – Haizeta and Oriamendi , the opening of the controlled landfill for inert waste.
IV.- THE URBAN FRAMEWORK
We can find closed and open blocks (with free spaces in the center), regular (they have defined geometric shapes) and irregular (without a regular polygonal shape).
On the other hand, a symmetry and uniformity is observed in the plan in what we call the Central City and part of its Complementary Area, being able to distinguish, however, the different stages of its development.
The development of the urban framework and the structure throughout the history of the city has already been analyzed previously. Now we will stop at the current urban framework of the whole of the municipal area.
Only the plan of the Old Town can give us a vague idea of the first urban fabrics of the city. It must be remembered that until the 18th century the medieval plane prevailed. In the plans prior to the 18th century, the walled enclosure appears completely occupied by the blocks of houses, which are cut by the streets and cantons in a regular way, reminiscent of a military camp. In these blocks, the houses are grouped compactly without leaving any open space, with the exception of the Plaza Vieja, which led to the Puerta de Tierra. In the 18th century, the great novelty of the Plaza Nueva was introduced, in the center of the town, with beautiful porticoes.
The fires, to which we have already referred, did not introduce changes either in the structure or in the urban morphology of the city. The houses were rebuilt, with the same characteristics, on their old lots.
After the fire of 1813, the city was reconstructed, still within its walls. It took 36 years to carry out the work and its result was the current Parte Vieja, which is included between Monte Urgull , the current Boulevard, the port and San Juan street, with an area of 10 hectares.
The reconstruction commission fell to the architect Pedro Manuel Ugartemendía , who, after some conflicts with the owners of the plots, proceeded, together with the architect Alejo de Miranda, to rebuild the city on the pre-existing plots. In this way, the only consolation left to the architects was to regularize and widen some streets, and establish some ordinances for the typology and morphology of the buildings.
After the authorization for the demolition of the walls (1863), work on the Southern Ensanche began in 1864, according to the proposal of Antonio de Cortázar which, with the successive extensions, came to affect some 70 Has., in a period of about thirty years. During this time notables were introduced. The complex is structured around a North-South axis (current Hernani street), a continuation of the Mayor street in the Old Town. Parallel to Hernani street, and following the course of the river, between the Santa Catalina and Zurriola bridges , is the Paseo de la República Argentina. The Alameda del Boulevard and the Alameda de la Libertad close the northern sector of the Ensanche on its north and south sides, respectively.
In this northern sector we find the porticoed Plaza de Guipúzcoa as the central point. The urban fabric is made up of rectangular blocks measuring 56×84 meters, eleven of which are aligned, with these characteristics, between the streets of Hernani, Garibay, Churruca, Elcano, Idiáquez, Legazpi, Oquendo and Plaza de la República Argentina. The streets of Peñaflorida , Bengoechea, Andía and Camino intersect the previous ones, completing the urban fabric of this sector. Between the Paseo de la República Argentina and Oquendo street there is a garden area, where the Victoria Eugenia Theater and the María Cristina Hotel are located. Two blocks remain, a narrower rectangular one at the end that faces La Concha Bay, and another trapezoidal one between Oquendo Street and Paseo de la República Argentina at the end that faces the Urumea River.
A southern sector of the Ensanche extends from Avenida de la Libertad to Plaza del Buen Pastor, the other limits being the Bay of La Concha and the Urumea River. The streets of San Marcial, Arrasate , San Martín, San Bartolomé and Alfonso XIII form the horizontal axes, and the perpendiculars are formed by the streets of Manterola, Easo , Urbieta, Loyola, Fuenterrabía, Guetaria, Vergara and Echaide. The Paseo de la Concha, the Paseo de los Fueros, the Plaza de Bilbao and the Plaza de Zaragoza complete this set, whose central nucleus is the Plaza del Buen Pastor, which, due to the larger area of this sector of the Eixample, remains somewhat moved to the west. The blocks present here shapes closer to quadrangular, with 56×54 meters.
On the hill of San Bartolomé, the part of it that hindered the extension of Easo street was eliminated . The General Plan of 1995 provides for the expansion of the aforementioned clearing and the remodeling of the areas close to Amara Viejo.
It should be noted that we are currently witnessing, in this area, a strengthening of the development of commercial activity, and of the cultural, recreational and leisure offer. With regard to the changes that this sector of the city has undergone, we must mainly point out the area of Buen Pastor, where the Koldo Mitxelena cultural center is also located. Besides this, it is the urbanization of the Boulevard (1999) and Alderdi Eder (1998). This plan, together with the pedestrianisations resulting from the new road system arrangement, must constitute a fundamental factor for improving the environmental quality of the Eixample, as well as its commercial attractiveness.
The so-called Eastern Ensanche developed between the Old Town and the mouth of the Urumea River, reclaiming land from the sea and regularizing and channeling the left bank of the river. The main set is framed between Paseo de Salamanca and Aldamar street . Since the construction period of this area is within the development of the Ensanche de Cortázar, the blocks have similar characteristics, with smaller patios and a rectangular floor plan, trying to make the most of the 5.3 hectares. won from the sea The Zurriola bridge and the Boulevard link this extension to Gros and the city center, respectively.
In Miraconcha we find a mixture of villas and luxury homes ; Today the old mansions and chalets are giving up their places to luxury residential properties.
The Gros neighborhood was built on the dunes and sandbanks located between the mouth of the Urumea River and the foot of Mount Ulía , also gaining important land from the sea. Single-family complexes and small hotels began to be built, but soon all kinds of real estate abuse began to be allowed, mixing residences with workshops, small industries, and green and open spaces disappearing. Zurriola Beach was reduced to a small area open to strong waves. However, this is one of the areas that has seen its structure modified to a greater extent. We will highlight the redevelopment of the coastline as a pedestrian promenade from Mompás to the Zurriola bridge . It also wants to consolidate the new Gros beach and the new dike built as an extension of the right bank of the river. Along with these two actions, perhaps the most important is the construction of a cultural complex for the Auditorium and Conference Center.
Within the Gros neighborhood we have one of the most chaotic examples of San Sebastian urbanism; the blocks are extremely irregular, in a labyrinth of streets saturated with commercial floors, workshops, small industries, warehouses, garages, etc., which create a certain sensation of suffocation and chaos.
The most regular alignments are found following Avda. de Navarra, in the sector called Nuevo Gros, in which the land of the old Plaza de Toros was used to build a series of commercial blocks and basements that contribute to urban saturation and congestion. of the neighborhood, although they are quality homes. This area , where the buildings maintain a greater regularity, continues along Avda. de la Zurriola and Paseo de Ramón María de Lilí.
Among the most relevant urban changes in the Gros neighborhood, the pedestrianization of the so-called ” Corazon de Gros” stands out. In the same way, it is intended to complete the construction of the road network of the expansion and address the internal reform of the affected areas (around the Gros Market), adapting new uses and areas for public use on the surface.
The most important open and green space that exists in the neighborhood is the Plaza de Cataluña, under which an underground car park was built in the 1970s.
The Sagüés neighborhood, between Zurriola beach and the foot of Monte Ulía , is a small set of poor-quality housing blocks, which does not respond to any previous plan, and its rehabilitation is planned.
The Ulía-Ategorrieta complex presents a series of single-family homes, together with small blocks of low-income housing, some educational, health, and religious centers and luxury villas.
To the south of Gros, the Atocha and Eguía complexes begin. In Atocha we find a regular alignment along the Paseo del Duque de Mandas, in front of the old Atocha soccer field and the Abastos, Old Military Hospital and Tobacco Factory buildings.
Also noteworthy is the possible remodeling of the Iztueta viaduct area and the construction by the Department of Urbanism, Housing and the Environment of the Basque Government of a program of “officially protected housing”, “garages” and complementary “office” premises , on Paseo del Urumea and according to an “open building” typology with adjoining “private gardens”.
In the neighborhoods of Antiguo and Ondarreta, we find great typological differences. A few years ago, villas and low-rise buildings predominated throughout Ondarreta and there were two lines of poor-quality houses in the vicinity of Monte Igueldo. Today we observe the disappearance of the two alignments. Likewise , it is worth noting the Ensanche de Ondarreta, which has a low density, and the disappearance of the Lizariturri factory , where a significant number of homes have been built in the last five years of the 20th century.
In the Antiguo neighborhood there is a high-level residential sector, in 6 blocks that are aligned following Avenida de Zumalacárregui, being limited by Calle Matía , from which we find a motley set of streets and houses of all kinds. El Antiguo extends into the residential, educational, and industrial areas of Ibaeta, Lorea, Zapatari , Igara, and Añorga.
This San Sebastián neighborhood is one of those that have changed the most and, therefore, it is convenient to point out some actions. In Venta berri a “residential” and “tertiary” area is being developed that is configured as the “center” of activity and representative of the urban complex made up of the neighborhoods of El Antiguo and Ibaeta. The university city in Ibaeta must also be developed: the North and South university campus of the UPV, and the Faculty of Engineering (University of Navarra).
In Beriyo , a mixed residential development of “open building” and “under development” is proposed, consolidating the existing school buildings and creating a road network that allows a direct relationship between the area and its surroundings. In Illarra, the construction of a new low-density residential area is planned, as in Iza. The Errotaburu area is to be assigned a “characteristic use” of “housing”, complemented by a significant proportion of “tertiary uses”.
Finally, in Zuatsu a new “industrial use” area has been created for the implementation of non-polluting modalities, framed in what has come to be called “High Technology” or “R + D” (Research and Development).
The semi- rural sector of El Antiguo reaches the point of connecting with the Ayete complex and the Etxadi garden-city , which in turn connect with Aldapeta , Bidebieta-2 and Alto de Miraconcha .
From these areas, and with the same dispersion character, you can access the popular neighborhoods and small and old constructions of Alto de Errondo , Alto Amara, Morlans and Amara Viejo. From Alto de Errondo you can access the health and care services area of Zorroaga – Miramón, with the Hospital, Health Residence, Polyclinic, Asylum, Finca de Miramón, etc.
In the Amara Nuevo neighborhood, which develops with the channeling of the Urumea and the drying of the marshes, it is necessary to distinguish several areas, being a common note to all of them, the large blocks of houses, with a high population density, and a deficient structure in its urbanization.
The most open and quality area stretches from Avda. de Carlos I to Paseo de Errondo and Podavines . Its central axis is José María Salaverría street , leaving undeveloped plots. From the east side of Avda. de Carlos I, to the river, the railway line and Paseo de Zorroaga , an older and poorer quality sector extends, whose main axis is Avda. de Madrid.
To the north of Plaza de Pío XII begins the northern area of the neighborhood, which reaches Parque de Álava and Plaza del Centenario, which leads to the Amara Viejo neighborhood and the Ensanche complex, which extends from Plaza from Buen Pastor to this sector of Amara Nuevo, which presents characteristics similar to those of the rest of the Ensanche, but with greater morphological and functional degradation, with the presence of smaller and irregular blocks. The axis of this sector is formed by the streets Easo , Urbieta and Prim, and, as an open area, it has the Paseo del Árbol de Guernica, following the course of the Urumea river.
The southern complex of the Amara Nuevo neighborhood is completed with the Anoeta sports area, the gardens of Plaza de Pío XII, the church of the Sagrada Familia and the complex of the Government sub-delegation, Institute of Secondary Education, other educational centers and the bus station, next to the Hotel Amara Plaza. In Anoeta, the sports area stands out.
In the so-called Apendix de Amara (Amara- Osinaga ) buildings are developed in blocks intended for residential use. There are also “tertiary uses” on the “ground floor”, in addition to the ARCCO shopping center.
Following the course of the Urumea, from the Amara neighbourhood, we arrive at the group formed by Loyola and Txomin-Enea, where we find a small sector of villas, a memory of an attempt to create a garden city, the Army barracks, the military houses , the scattered housing area of Txomin-Enea, and the disorderly grouping of Loyola.
In other sectors of the city (La Paz, Herrera, Bidebieta, Alza, Astigarraga, Intxaurrondo , Larratxo , Martutene , Sarrueta , etc.), there are strong contrasts between dispersion and concentration. Low-quality housing predominates, large blocks, poor communications and access, the scarcity or absence of open spaces, the weakness of services, etc., with a high population density, although in recent years it has improved notably in everything related to equipment and services.
In the Intxaurrondo and Alza area we must mention the development of an important “residential area” in Baratzategi and Bustintxulo ( Intxaurrondo -Sur), as well as the Garbera shopping center.
V.- MORPHOLOGICAL AREAS.
We are going to refer below to the physical state of the buildings, which, together with the above, will allow us to see the degree of homogeneity of the different Morphological Areas of the city.
The Old Town is clearly a morphological conservation area, although tending towards a certain revitalization of its functions that does not deteriorate the historical and sentimental value of this unit.
Within this group of conservation areas, although for other reasons (beauty of the landscape, recreational spaces, etc.), we include the sectors of Igueldo, Miraconcha , Ayete , Ulía-Ategorrieta , Ondarreta, Zubieta and Zorroaga – Miramón, although in In the first four, there has been a fairly rapid renovation process with the disappearance of landscaped mansions that have been replaced by higher-rise and denser residential complexes.
There are areas in El Antiguo, Eguía-Atocha, Loyola, Amara Viejo, Centro, Gros, and other peripheral neighborhoods, in which the old buildings, workshops and small industrial warehouses have been or are being replaced by new residential buildings. We are, in this way, before a process of renewal in deteriorated areas.
There are also very deteriorated areas in which no renovation process has begun.
In Avenida de la Libertad, there has been an accelerated process of morphological renewal, with the appearance of luxury homes and buildings for banks, offices, etc.
In the old lands occupied by the Plaza de Toros, there was also a process of renovation and accelerated transformation, forming what is called the New Gros. This is how a series of residential blocks and commercial premises were built. In this same sense, there have been accelerated processes in Intxaurrondo , Alza, Astigarraga, Larratxo , Bidebieta 1 and 2, La Paz, Herrera, Roteta , Loyola, El Antiguo-Ibaeta, Ayete , Eguía-Atocha, and other small sectors of the neighborhoods peripherals.
Logically, these processes have more or less dynamism, in relation to the general development of the Center, the Central City and the interrelationships and interdependencies that occur throughout the complex formed by San Sebastián and its Peripheral Area.
VI.- THE URBAN MODEL OF SAN SEBASTIÁN AND ITS PERIPHERAL AREA.
With this denomination we refer to an approximation to the morphological-functional reality of the urban complex that forms the Gipuzkoan capital and a series of nearby municipalities, some of them forming a conurbation with Donostia, which occupy a sector of the coast, between the bays of the Concha and Pasaia, and from Las Vegas del Urumea, Oria, Oiartzun and Regata de Añorga.
This urban model does not appear isolated, but forms part, from the initial process of its formation, of a higher unit: the Urban Region of Guipúzcoa. In our province we find a complex mesh of scattered farmhouses, small rural areas, which are distributed throughout the Gipuzkoan geography, in a semi-enclosed and oriented landscape, which little by little is giving way to a certain originality as the urban phenomenon develops. industry and the urbanization process.
We can consider Guipúzcoa as a space organized by San Sebastián with its Peripheral Area, within the maritime subsystem, as a nodal region of the Basque-peripheral urban system as a whole.
The Gipuzkoan capital is a very dynamic municipality if we consider all the municipalities in the province, increasing its centrality as a result of the increase in the concentration of goods and services. However, this increase, which is considerable with respect to the province, is not so for the immediately peripheral municipalities, which are beginning to host commercial functions that are typical of the Central City.
This urban model, with its forms, land uses, facilities, infrastructures, socioeconomic activity, flows, etc. It has been configured through different stages:
1) Until the middle of the 12th century , the rural character predominated.
2) From the middle of the 12th century to the beginning of the 15th century , with the founding of the capital and its consolidation as the first urban center of the region, its fortification, population increase and control over a large municipal area, and development of the port commercial and road network.
3) From the beginning of the 15th century to the end of the 18th century , the military role of the city and the decline of its economic power stand out, the reduction of its municipal term , growth of the suburbs of Antiguo, San Martín and Santa Catalina, and port expansion works.
4) From the beginning of the 19th century until the demolition of the walls in 1863, a stage in which we highlight the fire of 1813, the reconstruction works in 1816, the beginning of tourism in 1845, the inauguration of the N-1 highway in 1847, and the capital of 1854.
5) From 1864 to 1955, with the extension of Cortázar to Avenida, the southern extension, the eastern extension, the evolution of other neighborhoods, the occupation of part of the Vega del Urumea, general growth of the entire central and peripheral urban complex , and the General Plan of 1950.
6) From 1956 to the present day, with the Land Law, the San Sebastián General Plan of 1962 and other plans in the municipalities of the peripheral area, the Guipúzcoa Urban Planning Plan of 1966, the Land Planning Law of 1990 and its Directives of 1994, the General Plan of Donostia of 1995, the formation of urban peripheries, functional areas and the configuration process of a Metropolitan Area, with the Donostia-Baiona axis.
The units of the urban model are the following:
* Central City with the Central District (CBD) and the Complementary Area.
* The Peripheral Area with the Submetropolitan Corridor and the Suburban Corridors.
VII.- THE CENTRAL CITY
The Central District’s main axis is Avenida de la Libertad, extending from this axis to the Boulevard and to the Plaza del Buen Pastor. In this area , the Plaza de Guipúzcoa stands out with the Palace of the Provincial Council. We are in the most representative and official activity area of the city, with significant financial and commercial activity.
The Complementary Area has a heterogeneous character, with services and activities that revolve around the function of the Central District, also counting on an important presence of residential activity. In this area we have the western and southern sectors of the Ensanche, which form part of the Center, Miraconcha , Aldapeta , Aiete , Munto , Bera-Bera , Etxadi , Ondarreta, Igeldo , el Antiguo and Benta Berri, as extensions of the western sector, and Amara Viejo, San Roque, Morlans , Amara Nuevo, Zorroaga , Anoeta, Errondo , Ciudad Sanitaria and Miramón, as extensions of the southern sector. In addition, there are the areas of the Old Town, the Ensanche Oriental, Gros, Sagüés , Cemoriya , Atocha, Egia and Mundaiz .
The rest of the urban units are included in what we call the Peripheral Area, in which we differentiate between the Submetropolitan Corridor , with the highest density and urban continuity, and the Suburban Corridors, which present minor features of density and urban continuity.
In the Submetropolitan Corridor we have Ulía , Ategorrieta , Intxaurrondo , La Paz, Bidebieta, Herrera, Alza, Larratxo and the municipalities of Pasaia, Lezo, Rentería and Oiartzun.
In the Southeastern Suburban Corridor, we have Gomistegi , Loiola , Txomin-Enea, Martutene , Sarrueta , Astigarraga, Ergobia , Landarbaso , Hernani and Urnieta. On the other hand, in the Suroriental-Occidental we have Pakea , Beriyo , Ciudad Universitaria, Lorea, Zapatari , Ibaeta, Igara, Errotaburu , Añorga-Txiki, Rezola, Rekalde, Zubieta, Lasarte-Oria, Usurbil and Andoain.
VIII.- THE PERIPHERAL AREA.
Firstly , it should be noted that Guipúzcoa is a territory in which we find a complex mesh of scattered hamlets, small rural centers and a network of towns and villages, which are distributed throughout its territory in a landscape strongly impacted by the urban-industrial phenomenon. , with which it can be defined as an Urban Region.
Throughout this area there is a certain balance in the spatial distribution of the population and urban centers, but with serious urban planning and environmental problems, both in its historic centers and in its peripheries, as well as in the level of infrastructures and equipment.
The urban framework, developed on the coast and in the valleys, has given rise to numerous conurbations, that is, two or more nuclei that growing separately end up joining an urban complex, as is the case of San Sebastián and its Peripheral Area; Irun-Hondarribia ; Andoain- Billabona ; Arrasate-Aretxabaleta ; Zumárraga -Urretxu ; Beasain – Ordizia – Lazkao – Olaberria; Azpeitia-Azkoitia ; etc
The Regions of Donostia-San Sebastián and Bajo Bidasoa (Irún-Hondarribia) have configured what we can call the Metropolitan Area, which presents as characteristics the existence of a main nucleus or Central City with its area of influence, a significant concentration of population with posts of work in the Regions, predominance of tertiary activities, relationships of interdependence between the different nuclei, a high degree of interrelation in economic and social communications, and the existence of a transport and communications system sufficiently developed to maintain relations between the Central City and its area of influence, while facilitating its connection with other nearby urban systems.
We have already commented previously that San Sebastián is a municipality with a high centrality. However, municipalities in its Peripheral Area such as Rentería and Hernani maintain their functional position with respect to the capital; Pasajes, Urnieta, Usurbil, Andoain and Lasarte-Oria progressively increase their centrality; however, in Lezo and Oiartzun we see that the tertiary endowment does not increase (with the exception of hypermarkets), correlatively with the population.
All this Peripheral Area tends to increase the concentration of goods and services, with respect to the increase in population. When considering the primacy, it can be observed how the municipality of Donostia tends to decrease, while the periphery increases moderately.
IX.- INTEGRATION OF DONOSTIA-SAN SEBASTIÁN AND ITS PERIPHERAL AREA INTO DIFFERENT URBAN SYSTEMS.
By Urban System we mean a set of cities with their characteristics, plus the relationships between cities, between cities and their characteristics, and between the characteristics.
With the word relations we refer to the possible interrelationships, interconnections, interdependencies and interactions that may occur in the System as a whole.
In the Basque Country, what we now call the Urban System has gradually been formed, with Guipúzcoa being integrated into it as an Urban Region with its Counties and Functional Areas.
As historical determinants of the formation of the Basque Urban System we have the foundation of the medieval Villas and the impact of industrialization in the coastal provinces.
At present, we find in the Basque Urban System a demographic-spatial structure with little prominence, headed by Bilbao and followed by the Comarcas or Metropolitan Areas of San Sebastián, Pamplona, Vitoria and Bayona. In addition to this, we can differentiate a coastal Subsystem, in which Guipúzcoa is found together with Bizkaia and the Laburdi coast, and an inland Subsystem with the lands of Álava, Navarra, Benabarra and Zuberoa.
In the coastal subsystem, the strong concentration of the Bilbao and Baiona Area stands out, compared to the Gipuzkoan dispersion of medium and small nuclei, which guarantees a better balance in terms of relationships, connections, land use, development of regions and policies of Planning of the Territory.
We must also consider the Development Axes that are being formed, as is the case of Bizkaia-Guipúzcoa- Laburdi ; that of Bizkaia-Cantabria; Alava-Burgos ; Guipuzcoa-Navarre; and Navarra – Laburdi – Benabarra – Zuberoa, which in turn are related to the major Axes such as the Atlantic Arc, Ebro Valley-Mediterranean Coast, or the N-1 towards the lands of Castilla-León, Madrid, Extremadura and Portugal.
Within this System, Guipúzcoa occupies a strategic place with regard to relations with the European urban space, through connections with the Laburdi coast, presided over by Baiona, which forms an important conurbation, and relations with the rest of the Community Autonomous and with Navarra towards the Ebro axis. The province of Guipúzcoa, with its traditional dynamism and territorial balance, represents a very important contribution to the whole of the Basque Urban System, to maintain its dynamism, attract investment and improve environmental quality, At the same time, the administrative limits are being improved to achieve regional spaces integrated into the large European urban systems, which are currently evolving very rapidly, and there is a risk of remaining on the periphery of them.
In Guipúzcoa, the role of the Donostia-San Sebastián Metropolitan Area stands out, which extends to Irún-Hondarribia, with important residential, commercial and industrial areas. On the other hand, the link highway with Pamplona has strengthened relations with Navarra and the Ebro Valley.
Donostia-San Sebastián and its Peripheral Area is a continuous urban space that connects with the Laburdi coastline, being a key element of the Basque Urban System and being in the metropolitan phase . The capital together with Rentería, Pasaia and Lezo form a conurbation, which if we join it with Irún-Hondarribia and the Laburdi coast constitutes the Donostia-Baiona Corridor. They are followed in importance by Hernani, Lasarte-Oria, Oiartzun, Andoain, Usurbil, Urtieta and Astigarraga. Functional specialization, rather than dependency relationships, is what establishes the degree of relationships between urban centers.
Despite the high density (1,007 Inhab./Km2), the spatial distribution of the population is fairly balanced, with slow growth, being the most developed urban space in the tertiary sector of the Autonomous Community, occupying 58% of the population active. The construction sector occupies 6%, industry 33% and the primary sector 3%. In short, the capital of Guipúzcoa stands out for its financial, insurance, personal services and transport functions, distributing itself through the centers of the periphery (Hernani, Pasajes, Rentería, Oiartzun, Urnieta and Usurbil) port, industrial and small commercial sectors. .
Finally, it should be noted that this set also influences the area of Orio, Billabona – Zizurkil -Aduna and northwestern Navarra.
Origin and source: Mr. Javier Gómez Piñero /GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY OF DONOSTIA-SAN SEBASTIAN /https://www.ingeba.org/liburua/donostia/53geourb/53geourb.htm
PRACTICAL ASPECTS WHEN BUYING
I.- TAXES DERIVED FROM THE PURCHASE OF HOMES IN THE BASQUE COUNTRY
- RESALE: The Tax to be paid is the “Patrimonial Transfer Tax”, which is as follows:
- 7%: Transfer of real estate
- 4%: Transmission of houses
- 5%: Transfer of habitual residence
- 4%: Transmission of animals and personal property
- NEW HOMES: The following taxes are paid:
- VAT: 10%
- AJD: 0.5%
II.- ANOTHER QUESTIONS:
- The seller’s occupation license is not required. Years ago, in the Basque Country, the old “Certificate of Habitability” granted by the regional government was annulled, and replaced by the “First Occupation License” currently issued by local governments/City Halls in new-build homes.
- It is advisable to confirm with the City Council that there are no urban planning violations in the construction, and that the property is not considered “out of order”.
- In Urban properties, it is necessary to confirm that the building has passed the ITE (“Building Technical Inspection”) that is passed every 10 years from 50 years old.
- CADASTRE: The Basque Country has its own Cadastral organization, which is accessed differently from the rest of the State.
- TAX VALUE: The cadastral record of the property indicates and confirms its tax value
II.- TOURIST RENTAL IN DONOSTI:
In accordance with the provisions of articles 8 and 9 of the General Urban Regulations of the General Urban Planning Plan of San Sebastián, the urban use of tourist housing constitutes a tertiary use and within it constitutes a hotel use. For its part, the rental of rooms in habitual residence for tourist use constitutes a use assimilated to residential housing use.
The use of tourist homes or the rental of rooms in habitual residence for tourist use in public protection housing and endowment accommodation may not be developed.
The application for tourist rental housing is made by RESPONSIBLE DECLARATION, and must be registered as such. Once your registration is completed, it will appear in the DONOSTI TOURIST HOUSING CENSUS: https://www.donostia.eus/ataria/es/web/hirigintza/censo-de-viviendas-turisticas
The tourist use of San Sebastián is divided into three zones :
- Zones A (saturated zones) . In zones A or saturated zones, implementations of the urban use of tourist housing are totally prohibited , as well as the rental of rooms in habitual residence for tourist use. The properties that before the entry into force of this Ordinance have authorization or have registered the appropriate prior communication in which a favorable urban planning report is issued in accordance with the regulations applicable at the time, will not be affected by the declaration of a saturated area.
- Zones B (zones of high demand) .: In zones B or zones of high demand, specified in the plans of this Ordinance, the partial occupation of a residential building for use as tourist housing will be allowed in accordance with the following general criteria:
- a) On the ground floor , the urban use of tourist housing will be allowed in the cases and conditions of implementation of the use of housing in the same established in the General Urban Planning Plan and in the Municipal Ordinance Regulating the implementation of the use of housing in different Residential building plans, as well as pre-existing housing divisions.
- b) On the first floor, or assimilable, the urban use of tourist housing with common access to the housing will be allowed when its useful area added to the rest of the non-residential uses in the building, with common access to the housing, is equal to or less than 250 useful square meters in the entire building and must also comply with the conditions for the implementation of the use of housing established in the General Urban Planning Plan and the Municipal Ordinance Regulating the implementation of the use of housing on different floors of residential buildings, as well as pre-existing housing divisions.
- c) In the upper floors located above the previous ones, a tourist dwelling with common access to the dwellings will be allowed, provided that none of the ones located below it is destined or is planned to be destined for residential use, so that all these floors must be intended for other types of authorized uses other than residential use and that their useful area added to the rest of the non-residential uses in the building, with common access, is equal to or less than 250 useful square meters in the entire building m² (u) limit of 250 useful square meters of non-residential uses with common access to the dwellings is not exceeded in the entire building , a single tourist dwelling with common access to the dwellings will be allowed without applying the requirement that it does not exist. or residential use is projected below that requested for tourist housing on upper floors in buildings with a minimum of 7 floors (B+6) and another tourist housing for every 6 additional floors, to be located on any of the additional floors.
- Zones C (zones with the possibility of increasing the offer of tourist accommodation) . In these C zones, with the possibility of increasing the offer of tourist accommodation, to Zone B, two tourist houses on upper floors in buildings with a minimum of 7 floors (B+6 ); and another two houses for every 6 additional floors to be located on any of the additional floors.
Such permits will take effect provided that in the above cases the limit of 350 useful square meters for non-residential uses, including tourist housing, with common access, is not exceeded in the entire building, nor the limit of useful square meters for non-residential uses. residential excluding those of tourist housing, with common access to the houses.
FOUR TYPES OF TOURIST ACCOMMODATION
In this way, in accordance with Law 13/02016, of July 28, on Tourism in the Basque Country, the Bilbao City Council will group the different modalities that it includes, concentrating them into four different categories:
- Tourist Rooms : In this type of accommodation, the owner of the tourist activity license must be registered in the house (he must reside permanently) in which the rooms are offered for tourist rental. The use of the home is subject to the same conditions or possibilities that are allowed in the case of exclusively residential use and the same person may not, under any circumstances, offer rooms in more than one home.
- Tourist Housing : are those that are dedicated entirely to tourist purposes, and must be located in buildings for residential use and exclusively on the first floors of the same -or on upper floors, provided they are located below the houses and with independent access. to these from the public highway.
- Hotels, hostels or pensions : They remain assimilated to the Use of Equipment and its regulation remains in the same terms in which it is currently authorized, according to the regulations of the General Urban Planning Plan regarding its location -and that of the PER of the Casco Viejo and PERRI of Bilbao la Vieja in the event that they are implemented in said areas-.
- Tourist apartments and apart-hotels : according to the description contained in Law 13/2016, of July 28, on Tourism in the Basque Country, apartments are considered to be those that not only have a bedroom but also have a toilet and kitchen. This group of tourist establishments – in addition to the conditions imposed by municipal planning for hotel uses in general – will be subject to compliance with the technical specifications related to light, ventilation and other hygienic-sanitary conditions required for rooms in conventional homes.